The first thing I do is separate jewelry by the material, meaning that all of my silver jewelry go together, all of the gold together, if I have rose gold I'll put them together, if they are made out of fabric or plastic or whatever. Essentially, I categorize the jewelry based on the kind of material. There is actually a reason why I advise separating them, and the reason being is that any gold jewelry cannot be mixed with silver or any other kind of metal, or they will eventually ruin my gold jewelry, and I saw it first hand with my aunt's jewelry. So basically, make sure than you dont mix several kinds of metal together, because steel can get rust, silver can lose its color in the long run, and gold is sensitive to other kinds of metal.
After you have separated your jewelry on that basis, you can pretty much organize them however you want. The key to organization is to get some jewelry boxes, organizers, or any kind of container. My advice would be to get one that can be closed, because as I mentioned earlier, silver jewelry can oxidize with time, and lose their color and shine, and also because you can put several ones on top of each other. Personally, I prefer jewelry boxes, but that depends on your personal preference. Containers can be made out of transparent plastic, if you would like to see the content within, or they can be made out of plastic or cardboard, which is not a problem because you can either color code them, or you can put a sticker on top of it and write down what each box contains.
Now the next step is to organize them either according to what kind of jewelry piece they are, say bracelets, necklaces, etc. Another way of organizing your jewelry is by the kind of stone they have, such as pearls, zircon, clear, etc. Basically, the silver pieces with pearls should have a container of their own, the gold ones with pearls too, and so on. Or, what I personally do, is that I put the pieces I like to wear together in one box, which means that each jewelry box I have contains a set. Now I do have more earrings than necklaces and bracelets, so generally, in each container, there are more than one pair of earrings, and I just choose whichever I want to wear.
Afterwards, you should end up have several boxes of each kind of jewelry, or several boxes of jewelry sets that you have mixed and matched. If you got transparent containers, you wont need the next step, but if you didn't, then you'll either need to find a system of color coding, or coding them by size, or you can just use a sticker.
Now you have a bunch of containers in front of you, you need to find a place to store them. I assume the obvious answer is drawers. Now it really depends on the quantity of boxes that you have of each category. but if you have a large amount of boxes of one category, like I have a lot of gold pleated items, I suggest you dedicate a separate drawer for them. It depends on the amount of containers vs the size of the drawer itself. I keep all of my Gold and Gold pleated items in the same drawer, but in the jewelry boxes, there's either gold or pleated gold, but never mixed together. and on the other drawer, I keep my silver ones and my steel ones, which are quite few since they get rust quickly and I just get rid of them. The boxes in each drawer are organized according to what I wear the most, so basically, my most worn sets are right in the front of each drawer, and each kind of metal is of course separated.
Now, since I can see how what I have said before may sound confusing, I will run down quickly and shortly my preferred method that I use to organize my jewelry:
1. Separate your jewelry based on the material they're made of - silver, gold, pleated gold, etc.
2. Get as many jewelry containers as you think you need, make sure that they come with a lid to close them and protect your jewelry.
3. Take each category of jewelry and separate them according to sets that you wear together, and put each set in a jewelry box of its own.
4. Write down on stickers a description of the content of each box, and stick them on the boxes' lids!
5. Try to fit them in drawers according to the categories we've created in step 1, so that each drawer should have at least one FULL category of jewelry, and make sure that you dont mix the same category in more than one drawer.
6. Organize the boxes in your drawers according to what you like best, your favorite sets should be in the front, accessible and ready for you to take them out and wear them.
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I hope this was helpful :)